Like all other aquatic sports, Rowing has some basic necessities in order to prevent loss of life or serious injury. The "Ten Commandments" are :-
Rowers should be able to swim at least 100 metres or wear a "Personal Flotation Device" at all times (a type PFD 2 or 3 is recommended).
Study, understand and obey the traffic rules, restrictions and hazards of all waterways on which you intend to row, train or race. If in doubt keep to the right side of the waterway when facing in the direction you are travelling in.
Never go rowing unaccompanied by a coaching launch on waters where the temperature of the water is below 13 degrees Celsius.
Asses the weather conditions before rowing. Do not row if a lightning storm appears iminent or where visibility is poor e.g. fog, heavy rain.
All shells navigating between dusk and sunrise must carry a white light clearly visible over 360 degrees. Coxless boat crews should check their course regularly and be wary of craft that might change course without notice. Coaches must hold current Waterways Boat Driver's Licence.
Review the weather forecast before rowing in inclement conditions. If in doubt always seek the advice of an experienced coach or rower.
Protect yourself from the effects of extreme heat and sun. Avoid training in temperatures in excess of 30 degress Celsius; drink water up to the rate of 250ml per 15 minutes of exercise; wear a hat, long sleeve training top, water resistant sun block & sunglasses (with an Australian Standard AS rating).
In cold weather, dress to retain body warmth in order to prevent injuries and/or illness e.g. hat, tights, thermal long sleeve tops.
Make sure you have adequately warmed up prior to any strenuous training session or race.
Shower after each outing and only wear freshly laundered attire for each training session. Hygiene is of paramount importance.
Boats or shells were traditionally made from wood, but are now mostly fabricated from carbon fibre and plastic (eg. kevlar). They are 597 to 622 mm wide, and from 8.2 metres to 19.9 metres long. A small fin is fitted at the bottom for stability. A rudder is attached to the fin or the stem (except on sculling boats). A white ball is attached to the bow (safety measure, photo-finish). A washboard prevents waves from splashing water aboard. Seats are fitted with wheels which roll on tracks called slides.
There are nine classes of boat, of which five are for sweep-oared rowing in which the rower uses one oar with both hands, and three are for sculling in which two sculls are used, one in each hand.
Some classes carry a coxswain who either sits in the stern or lies in the bow to steer the boat. The boat classes are:
1x = Single sculling skiff
8.2 m (27 ft)
14 kg (30.8 lbs)
2x = Double sculling boat
10.4 m (34 ft)
27 kg (59 lbs)
4x = Quadruple sculling boat
13.4 m (44 ft)
52 kg (114 lbs)
4x+ = Coxed Quadruple scull
13.7 m (45 ft)
53 kg (114 lbs)
Sweep oared boats
2- = Coxless pair oar boat
10.4 m (34 ft)
27 kg (59 lbs)
2+ = Coxed pair oar boat
10.4 m (34 ft)
32 kg (70 lbs)
4- = Coxless four oar boat
13.4 m (44 ft)
50 kg (110 lbs)
4+ = Coxed four oar boat
13.7 m (45 ft)
51 kg (112 lbs)
8+ = Eight oar boat
19.9 m (62 ft)
96 kg (211 lbs)
Eights are constructed in two sections which bolt together (to facilitate transportation). The maximum length of a section of an Eight is 11.9 metres.
Oars are hollow to reduce weight, attached to the boat by adjustable outriggers. The size and shape of oars is unrestricted, the average length of a sweep oar being 3.81 m (12 feet 6 inches) and of a scull being 2.98 m (9 feet 9 inches).
The Rowing Stroke
The stroke is made up of the catch, in which oars are placed in the water; pull through or drive, in which the legs are extended and the body opens up to make maximum use of the slide, levering the boat forwards; the finish, in which oars come out of the water; and recovery, in which the rower's body moves towards the stern in preparation for the next stroke. Oars are rotated onto the feather parallel to the water surface at the finish to minimise air resistance and to the vertical at the catch to maximise water resistance.
A 90 minute video "Australian Rowing Technique 1996" which clearly demonstrates the correct rowing and sculling stroke cycle is available for purchase from the NSWRA Office (02 9552 1263).
Club and School Regatta Races
The boats are aligned from the side of the course by the starter who gives instructions over a loud speaker to either touch (take small strokes) the boat forward or to back down. The starter when satisfied that crews are on the line gives the command <<attention>> which is followed by a horn blast which is the starting signal. A false start is indicated by the Umpire waving a red flag and the crews are then recalled to the start.
The jurisdiction of the Umpire (who supervises the race from a speedboat) extends from the time the crews are assembling at the start until the coxswain's weight (if applicable) has been checked at the finish. All directives of the Umpire must be obeyed and failure to do so can lead to disqualification and other disciplinary sanctions being imposed.
At the finish as each crew crosses the line a horn is sounded and the finishing order and margins are recorded by the Judges.
All crews and scullers must carry approved lane numbers fitted to the bows of their boats.
The Referee together with the Jury (all other Boat Race Officials) are responsible for receiving, hearing and adjudicating on any protest, appeal or unforeseen matter in accordance with the Laws of Boat Racing.
Racing takes place at Sydney International Regatta Centre which is an Olympic standard course.
The boats are held by the stern from starting pontoons and the bows are aligned on the start line. The rower in the bow seat may raise his/her hand to indicate the crew is not ready, up until the time when the Starter conducts a roll call of the crews. After the last crew has been named in the roll call, the Starter raises his red flag and gives the warning command <<Attention>>, and after a pause, simultaneously an indicator turns from red to green and a electronic ring is broadcast. In case of a false start, an electronic ring will be broadcast and the Starter & Umpire wave a red flag to recall the crews. Crews are allowed only one false start each before being eliminated. A re-start can also be called within 100 metres of the start for equipment breakage.
Straying from a lane is punishable by the Umpire with disqualification if interference takes place to another boat.
The winner is the boat whose bow touches the finish line first, monitored by Judges and a photo-finish (video caption) system. All crews receive a horn blast as they cross the line.
The Umpire must raise his white flag at the end of a race to signify that it has been completed in accordance with the rules and that there has been no protest.
Lightweight Competitors & Coxswains
Lightweight men cannot weigh more than 72.5 kg and the average of the crew cannot exceed 70 kg (single sculler 72.5 kg). See Law 9(A).
Lightweight women cannot weight more than 59 kg and the average weight in the whole boat cannot exceed 57 kg (single sculler 59 kg).
In open age and weight competition coxswains of male crews must weigh a minimum of 55 kg and 50 kg for female crews. Refer to Law of Boat Racing 9(3) for lightweight & age variations.
The Olympic Regatta
Men's rowing in the program of the Modern Olympic Games dates from 1896, women's from 1976 and lightweights from 1996. The Olympic rowing programme (14 events):
Single Scull (M1x)
Single Scull (W1x)
Double Scull (M2x)
Double Scull (W2x)
Double Lightweight Scull (ML2x)
Double Lightweight Scull (WL2x)
Quadruple Scull (M4x)
Quadruple Scull (W4x)
Coxless Pair (M2-)
Coxless Pair (W2-)
Coxless Four (M4-)
Coxless Lightweight Four (ML4-)
FISA World Championship Regattas
Since 1962 Federation Internationale des Socieities d'Aviron "FISA" has held World Rowing Championships, at the beginning every four years and since 1974 every year except the Olympic year.
The current World Rowing Championships Programme (24 events):
FISA Junior World Championships are conducted annually in the following boats :-
Nations Cup Regatta
Australia is a member of the Nations Cup Regatta (Coupe des Nations) which is conducted annually for under 23 year old competitors in both weight divisions.
The NSWRA wishes to acknowledge the assistance of FISA in compiling this information.
The publisher believes all material produced in the N.S.W. Rowing Association Members Handbook is correctly and accurately researched. However, we give no warranty in relation thereto and disclaim liability for all claims against the publication, its employees or any person associated which may arise from any material contained within its pages which may be challenged by any persons.